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Ambrose Otau Talisuna
Public Health Research Department
Makerere University School of Public Health (MUSPH)
Submit manuscript at https://www.scholarscentral.org/submission/malaria-chemotherapy-control-elimination.html or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]
|Malaria has been curse to human life since ancient times. Our understanding about this deadly pathogen has increased yet we are not able to eradicate malaria successfully. The death toll increment on a regular basis and emergence of evolved new parasite raised the concern tremendously.|
|Malaria Control and Elimination journal is a peer reviewed and open access, critique and fully exemplified journal which aim to scaffold underlying and enforced aspects of malaria research in equatorial and other arena. This open access journal will provide researchers, scholars and academicians with a forum for publication of research advances, in the form of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc.|
|Malaria Control and Elimination is using ?Editorial Manager System? for quality review process. Editorial ?Manager? system is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Malaria Control and Elimination or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.|
|Extensive global research and on growing understanding about malaria requires a common podium for exchange of information among the authors and the readers.|
|Malaria Control and Elimination journal offers excellent scope for exchanging such information. This journal considers articles in the areas of medicine for malaria, malaria control, cerebral malaria, malaria vaccines, antimalarial, neonatal malaria, malaria parasites,etc. advances in discovery, development and implementation of drugs, vaccines and mosquito control measures and any other related aspects for elimination of malaria which will regularly involve multi-disciplinary collaborations with laboratories and public education.|
Malaria is a serious infectious disease spread by certain mosquitoes. It is most common in tropical climates. It is characterized by recurrent symptoms of chills, fever, and an enlarged spleen. The disease can be treated with medication, but it often recurs.
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Malaria Journal, Malaria Research & Treatment, Journal of Food: Microbiology, Safety & Hygiene, Journal of Food & Industrial Microbiology, Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Malaria Journal, Journal of Malaria Research United States.
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. After the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum started to develop widespread resistance to it, new potential uses of this cheap and widely available drug have been investigated. Chloroquine can be used for preventing malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
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The mosquito has been described as the most dangerous vector in the world and the mosquito-borne disease with the greatest detrimental impact is undoubtedly malaria. There are about 3,500 mosquito species and those that transmit malaria all belong to a sub-set called the Anopheles. Approximately 40 Anopheles species are able to transmit malaria well enough to cause significant human illness and death.
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Genetic resistance to malaria is an inherited change in the genome of an organism that confers a selective survival advantage due to conferring or increasing resistance to disease. In malaria, an infection of the erythrocytes (red blood cells), the genetic change is an alteration of the hemoglobin molecule or cellular proteins or enzymes of erythrocytes that inhibits invasion by or replication of Plasmodia, the microorganisms that cause the disease.
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Cerebral malaria forms part of the spectrum of severe malaria, with a case fatality rate ranging from 15% in adults in southeast Asia to 8.5% in children in Africa. Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum.
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Malaria infection during pregnancy is a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the newborn child. Malaria-associated maternal illness and low birth weight is mostly the result of Plasmodium falciparum infection and occurs predominantly in Africa. The symptoms and complications of malaria in pregnancy vary according to malaria transmission intensity in the given geographical area, and the individual’s level of acquired immunity.
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Malaria parasites are micro-organisms that belong to the genus Plasmodium. There are more than 100 species of Plasmodium, which can infect many animal species such as reptiles, birds, and various mammals. Four species of Plasmodium have long been recognized to infect humans in nature. In addition there is one species that naturally infects macaques which has recently been recognized to be a cause of zoonotic malaria in humans.
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Recurrent malaria is a perplexing clinical problem and limited scientific data is available on its diagnostic approach, and management. Symptoms of malaria can recur after varying symptom-free periods. Depending upon the cause, recurrence can be classified as either recrudescence, relapse, or reinfection. Recrudescence is when symptoms return after a symptom-free period. It is caused by parasites surviving in the blood as a result of inadequate or ineffective treatment.
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Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for effective disease management and malaria surveillance. High-quality malaria diagnosis is important in all settings as misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity and mortality.
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Neonatal malaria was thought to be uncommon, even in malaria endemic areas. Neonates with febrile illness or related symptoms are often presumed to have neonatal septicaemia and examination of blood films for malaria parasites is rarely included in the initial work-up of these babies.
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Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria. Several malaria vaccines are under development. The ABCD of malaria prophylaxis: Awareness of the risk of malaria, Bites - reducing likelihood of bites from anopheline mosquitoes, Chemoprophylaxis, Diagnosis and prompt treatment to prevent complications.
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Malaria Research, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vector Parasites .
Malaria vaccines are an area of intensive research. Emergence of artemisinin and multi-drug resistant strains of especially P. falciparum are driving research. Current approaches are focusing on recombinant protein and attenuated whole organism vaccines. Various vaccines have reached the state of clinical trials; most demonstrated insufficient immunogenicity.
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Antimalarial drugs are used for the treatment and prevention of malaria infection. A drug directed against malaria. Most antimalarial drugs target the erythrocytic stage of malaria infection, which is the phase of infection that causes symptomatic illness. The extent of preerythrocytic (hepatic stage) activity for most antimalarial drugs is not well characterized.
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Malaria is a very serious disease, and its presence in many regions of the world is well known. So if you are traveling to an area where malaria is present, it is important to reduce the risk of infection by taking medicine before you travel, while you are in the area, and after you return home. Malaria is usually a preventable infection. There are good drugs to prevent malaria. During malaria treatment, doctor may do daily blood smears to follow the course of the infection. Most medicines for malaria are ones you take by mouth.
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Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans including Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax which are responsible for most malarial infection. While found worldwide, it is a so-called "benign malaria" and is not nearly as dangerous as that produced by P. falciparum or P. vivax. It causes fevers that recur at approximately three-day intervals (a quartan fever), longer than the two-day (tertian) intervals of the other malarial parasites, hence its alternate names quartan fever and quartan malaria.
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New strategies for malaria prevention and control are emphasizing ‘integrated vector management’. This approach reinforces linkages between health and environment, optimizing benefits to both. Integrated vector management is a dynamic and still-evolving field. IVM strategies are designed to achieve the greatest disease-control benefit in the most cost-effective manner, while minimizing negative impacts on ecosystems and adverse side-effects on public health.
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Congenital malaria is defined as malarial parasites demonstrated in the peripheral smear of the newborn from twenty four hours to seven days of life. Clinically apparent congenital malaria is rare in areas in which malaria is endemic and levels of maternal antibody are high. The most common clinical features of congenital malaria are fever, anaemia and splenomegaly. Other signs and symptoms include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, regurgitation, loose stools, and poor feeding.
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The malaria parasite develops both in humans and in the female Anopheles mosquitoes. The size and genetic complexity of the parasite mean that each infection presents thousands of antigens (proteins) to the human immune system. The parasite also changes through several life stages even while in the human host, presenting different antigens at different stages of its life cycle.
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Relapse has a specific meaning in regards to malaria and refers to the reactivation of the infection via hypnozoites. Relapse is when symptoms reappear after the parasites have been eliminated from blood but persist as dormant hypnozoites in liver cells. Relapse commonly occurs between 8–24 weeks and is commonly seen with P. vivax and P. ovale infections.P. vivax malaria cases intemperate areas often involve overwintering by hypnozoites, with relapses beginning the year after the mosquito bite.
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Malaria continues to be a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in treatment, especially of cases caused by P. falciparum the species of the parasite that is the main cause of the severe forms of the disease – may result in rapid deterioration in the patient’s condition, and in the development of life-threatening complications. Recognizing and promptly treating uncomplicated malaria is therefore of vital importance.
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Malaria is transmitted via the bite of a female Anopheles spp mosquito, which occurs mainly between dusk and dawn. Other comparatively rare mechanisms for transmission include congenitally acquired disease, blood transfusion, sharing of contaminated needles, and organ transplantation.
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Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malaria is caused by four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. Humans occasionally become infected with Plasmodium species that normally infect animals, such as P. knowlesi. As yet, there are no reports of human-mosquitohuman transmission of such “zoonotic” forms of malaria.
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Placental malaria is recognized as a common complication of malaria in pregnancy in areas of stable transmission, is particularly frequent and severe in primigravidae. Many hypotheses, based on a systemic or local failure of the immunological response to malaria.
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The malaria parasite typically is transmitted to people by mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. In rare cases, a person may contract malaria through contaminated blood. Malaria also may be transmitted from a mother to her fetus before or during delivery ("congenital" malaria). Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood.
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Current Malaria Research, Tropical Medicine and Surgery , Malaria Journal United Kingdom, Journal of Malaria Research United States.
Endemicity (or disease intensity) is a measure of disease prevalence in a particular region and prevalence is the proportion of people infected at a given point in time. We predict the prevalence of malaria parasites at different locations to provide estimates of endemicity.The vast majority of malaria disease and death occurs within these areas and the level of endemicity within these areas is of particular interest to groups involved in malaria control. Information about areas of unstable malaria transmission is important for regions that are close to malaria elimination and it is more appropriate to measure disease incidence.
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A female Anopheles mosquito carrying malaria-causing parasites feeds on a human and injects the parasites in the form of sporozoites into the bloodstream. The sporozoites travel to the liver and invade liver cells. The sporozoites are transmitted via the saliva of a feeding mosquito to the human bloodstream.
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All of the pathology of malaria is due to parasites multiplying in erythrocytes. The primary attack of malaria begins with headache, fever, anorexia, malaise, and myalgia. This is followed by paroxysms of chills, fever, and profuse sweating. There may be nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Such symptoms are not unusual for an infectious disease and it is for this reason that malaria is frequently called “The Great Imitator.” Then, depending on the species, the paroxysms tend to assume a characteristic periodicity. In P. vivax, P. ovale and P. falciparum the periodicity is 48hr and for P. malariae the periodicity is 72 hours.
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Acute febrile disease in the tropics and sub-tropics has often been considered to be due to malaria and treated as such. As accurate diagnosis for malaria, based on rapid diagnostic tests, is rolled out across malaria-endemic regions, it is becoming increasingly apparent that most fevers are due to other causes. By ‘acute febrile syndrome’ in this context we mean causes of acute fever and related symptoms that are similar to malaria. These are usually due to infection, resulting from a wide variety of pathogens.
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Vector control is a fundamental element of the existing global strategy to fight malaria. Vector control interventions have a proven track record of successfully reducing or interrupting disease transmission, particularly in areas that are highly prone to malaria. Indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets are the two core, broadly applicable malaria vector control measures. This section covers both core and supplementary vector control methods and discusses the action that is required to prevent and manage the increasing challenge of malaria vector resistance to insecticides.
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